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To understand how our technology works let's first remember some basic facts about water. Water is sometimes referred to as the "universal solvent". This term is used as water has unique characteristics that allow it to break the bonds of larger more complex compounds. For example, place a small teaspoon of sugar or salt in a glass of water, stir vigorously and it will dissolve easily.

Although the water in your industries & homes is clear, it is not pure. Being a wonderful solvent, water is very receptive and dissolves small amounts of the soluble minerals it comes into contact with in nature. Water contains elements essential for healthy living, including calcium and magnesium.

Hardness in Water

Hardness in water is caused by Calcium and Magnesium. Conventional water softeners remove the essential Calcium and Magnesium macro minerals from the water supply, by replacing them with Sodium. One of the benets of the solutions provided by our equipment Nano Catalytic Instant Water Converter (NCIWC) is that they do not remove these essential macro minerals.


While contributing to water hardness, Magnesium does not deposit as scale.

Calcium Carbonate

As we all know H2O can exist in various forms; Ice, Water and Steam. Just as water can exist in various forms so can Calcium Carbonate. The three forms of Calcium Carbonate are:


While contributing to water hardness, Magnesium does not deposit as scale.


Under certain circumstances (temperature rise or an increase in pH levels), water is forced to discharge Calcium Carbonate. The Calcium Carbonate discharged in this way is Calcite, a hard scale. The discharge will accumulate on the nearest receptive surface, typically metallic.


Aragonite is a form of Calcium Carbonate crystal that, unlike Calcite, prefers to stick to itself and grow attracting more Calcium. It remains suspended in water rather than depositing on metal surfaces.

Vat rite

Vat rite is not found in natural water.

Hot Water Scaling

In untreated hard water systems when contact is made with the hot surfaces found in water heaters, humidiers, kettles, boilers, heat exchangers etc, scale will be deposited. Calcium is inversely soluble, meaning that as the water temperature rises, the amount of Calcium that can be held in solution decreases. When this occurs in hard water system the excess Calcium that is been displaced by the tem - perature rise bonds with available Carbon to form Calcium Carbonate (in the Calcite form). This newly formed Calcium Carbonate is then deposited as scale on the nearest receptive surface.

Cold Water Scaling

In untreated hard water systems a rise in pH will also cause scaling. Carbon Dioxide dissolved in water under pressure takes the form of Carbonic acid. When the water pressure drops at a faucet for example, the Carbonic acid gasses off in the form of Carbon Dioxide causing an instant pH rise (making the water less acidic). Examples of pressure drops in systems that can produce pH related cold water scaling include nozzles, faucets and shower heads.